Горький перец

perec Огонь во рту, слезы в глазах, прилив крови к лицу и чувство жара – обычная реакция на острый красный перец. Несмотря на то, что перчики чили «кусаются», бояться их не стоит. На самом деле за жгучим вкусом скрывается много полезных свойств, а правильное приготовление и дозирование красного перца придает блюду не только остроту, но и богатый аромат.

Своему неповторимому острому вкусу перчики обязаны особому веществу – капсаицину, которое нигде больше не встречается. Острый вкус – защитный механизм растения от млекопитающих. Например, на птиц капсаицин не имеет никакого действия, и они служат природными «сеятелями» семян острых перцев. Индейцы начали культивировать острые перцы около 7000 лет назад и первыми открыли особые свойства red hot chili peppers. Одно из его свойств объясняет любовь человека к остренькому – когда наши вкусовые рецепторы распознают жгучий капсаицин, в мозг посылается такая же информация, как при ожоге или резкой боли, что является стартовым сигналом для производства гормона счастья – эндорфина. Именно поэтому острая пища вызывает приятные ощущения. Но опасаться не стоит – перчики чили привыкания не вызывают.
Капсаицин не разрушается ни при термической обработке, ни при заморозке или сушке, поэтому с дозированием нужно быть осторожным и всегда брать немного меньше красного перца, чем указано в рецепте. Некоторые сорта острого перца вызывают раздражение кожи уже при одном прикосновении. Существует специальная шкала остроты перца, нижнюю строчку в которой занимает болгарский перец (уровень 0), соус табаско расположился в середине (уровень 5), а на самом верху разместился выращиваемый в Индии мини-перчик «Нага Джолокия» (уровень 10), который по жгучести может сравниться разве что с газовым баллончиком.
Существуют сотни разновидностей острого перца, которые бывают разных цветов и размеров, но для всех срабатывает основное правило – чем меньше стручок, тем острее. Все перцы, независимо от остроты, обладают примерно одинаковыми полезными свойствами. В первую очередь это высокое содержание витамина С, которого в перце в 2-3 раза больше, чем в цитрусовых. Перцы являются источником каротина, рутина и большинства витаминов группы В, в особенности В6. Они богаты калием, а также магнием, железом и фосфором. На основе недавних исследований было доказано, что употребление острого перца имеет болеутоляющий эффект при артрите.
Капсаицин помогает бороться с раковыми клетками, убивает паразитов в желудочно-кишечном тракте, стимулирует рост волос, подавляет рост клеток жировой ткани. Кроме того, регулярное употребление в пищу перчиков чили укрепляет стенки кровеносных сосудов, снижает уровень инсулина и глюкозы в крови, улучшает кровообращение и гарантирует хороший сон. Острый перец стимулирует обмен веществ и термогенез, что в конечном счете приводит к снижению веса. Жгучий красный перец помогает также прочищать дыхательные пути и освобождать от слизи носовые пазухи и легкие. Острая пища служит и защите зубов от кариеса, так как стимулирует выделение слюны. Несмотря на все полезные свойства острого красного перца, его не рекомендуют употреблять людям, страдающим куперозом.
Американские индейцы использовали красный перец вместо соли: его острота и аромат делают вкус любого блюда насыщеннее, что исключает надобность в соли или сокращает ее употребление.
Перчики чили легко выращиваются в домашних условиях, но при их использовании нужно соблюдать меры предосторожности, так как при попадании в глаза и на открытые раны они вызывают сильное жжение, поэтому при разделке лучше всего использовать резиновые перчатки и держать растение подальше от детей.
Самые острые части перца – внутренности и семена, но они лишены аромата, поэтому их лучше всегда удалять. Жар красного перца нельзя залить водой, так как капсаицин нерастворим в воде, лучшее средство – молоко, йогурт или плавленый сыр.

Подготовила Юлия БОНДАРЬ. 

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